Saturday, May 23, 2020

Eating Disorders - 1328 Words

The rise of clinically diagnosed cases of anorexia nervosa nervosa and bulimia nervosa nervosa are increasing over the decades. According to Barlow,Durand and Stewart(2012), eating disorders are found to be more prevalent among women, specifically between the ages of 12 and 25 years of age. Prior to modern research, researchers saw eating disorders as a Western phenomenon due to the fact that non western countries did not have such a wide variety of food available to them. This perspective is now changing. Individuals in other countries (non-western) have been diagnosed with eating disorders as well, however it is not as frequent as the United States or Canada for example(Barlow et al., 2012). The purpose of the paper is to describe†¦show more content†¦With that said, women go to drastic measures such as following a strict diet in order to obtain the â€Å"ideal body image†. Eyal Te’eni-Harari (2013), describe the ways in which the media portrays thin people a nd bigger individuals. Heavier character on TV shows appear to be unattractive and or not sexually desirable. Another key point that was brought from Eyal Te’eni-Harari’s (2013) article is that women have been proven to unconsciously compare themselves to other women especially those that they praise(models/celebrities). With this knowledge, it is fair to place some blame on the media and its â€Å"thin unattainable ideal† and its influence on women and their low self-esteem which in turn may cause an eating disorder (Eyal Te’eni-Harari 2013). In the article â€Å"Eating and Body Image Disturbances Across Cultures: A Review† by Soh, Touyz Surgenor (2006), the authors suggested the possibility of the Western culture influenced the Non- Western into adapting the â€Å"ideal of thinness†. For the reason that Non-Western cultures valued â€Å"thickness† prior to thinness. They also stated that eating disorders other wise known as †Å"non- eating disorders†have been prevalent in other non-westernized countries for centuries (Soh et al., 2006). These researchers also encountered a finding that suggested acculturation of western society played a large role in the non- western world to adopt western traditionsShow MoreRelatedEating Disorders : Eating Disorder1205 Words   |  5 PagesEating Disorders in Today’s World Eating disorders are alive and well in today’s world and they are a major problem. An eating disorder can look like a few different things, ranging from a severe reduction of food intake to over eating to feelings of negativity towards your body shape or weight (Lehigh University). While some disorders can only be found in specific age groups, races, etc., eating disorders can be found amongst all and it does not necessarily have to be pointed towards food (LehighRead MoreEating Disorders : An Eating Disorder1184 Words   |  5 Pagesas an eating disorder. Weir (2016) goes on to explain the origins behind eating disorders in individuals. This topic is important because, in the United States, many women and men suffer from a clinically significant eating disorder at some point in their life. It is important to know the influences that cause an individual to experience an eating disorder. Genetically, or environmentally, or both genetically and environmentally. Anorexia ner vosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder are eatingRead MoreEating Disorders And Eating Disorder1573 Words   |  7 Pagesaffects people called an â€Å"eating disorder.† Why did you choose this topic? I chose this topic because it is a very prevalent issue in our society today, and a close friend of mine is suffering from an eating disorder. What question(s) did you want to answer or what was your hypothesis regarding this topic? As mammals, there is no chance of escaping the need to consume food in everyday life. However, when it comes to food there can be a major concern of eating too much or eating too little. Doing eitherRead MoreEating Disorders And Eating Disorder1104 Words   |  5 PagesEating disorder is a serious problem happens in both men and women. Eating disorder is a sort of disease in which a person is having a strange routine of eating like consuming a huge amount of food each time they eat. This can incorporate not eating enough nourishment or indulging. Eating disorder influence many people around the world. The larger part of peoples who are dealing with this issue are ladies. A person with eating disorder issue may focus nonsensically on their weight and shape. EatingRead MoreEating Disorders And Eating Disorder1410 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"An eating disorder is about anxiety and control and healing from trauma and food and weight are just the tools of destruction† (Floyd, Mim ms, Yelding, 2008). An eating disorder is defined as a severe disturbance in eating behavior. An eating disorder, as defined by our text book for class, is psychological disturbances that lead to certain physiological changes and serious health complications. The three most common and most easily identifiable forms of eating disorders include anorexia nervosaRead MoreEating Disorders : Eating Disorder966 Words   |  4 PagesEating Disorders Many people, both women and men of all ages, suffer from the psychological disorder, eating. Up to thirty million people in the world suffer from some kind of an eating disorder. There a two types of eating disorders, anorexia and bulimia, and have several methods of treatment. What is an eating disorder, and what do they cause? Eating disorders are maladaptive and very serious interruptions in eating. They can come in the form of overeating, or not eating enough, they are oftenRead MoreEating Disorders And Eating Disorder1496 Words   |  6 PagesAn eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amount of food, but as some point, the urge to eat less or more has gotten out of control. Severe distress or concern about body weight or shape may also signal an eating disorder. Common eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and a binge-eatingRead MoreEating Disorders : Eating Disorder1031 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The eating disorder is a very jealous and abusive partner. It requires a lot of devotion in the extent that you have to devote yoursel f to tending to the anorexia. There s not a lot of time left over for adult life,† was stated by Dr. Doug Bunnell, a specialist in eating disorders. Eating disorders effect a variety of people. Age, race, and gender aren’t role playing keys in eating disorders. Not everyone gets an eating disorder, but if they do then, it will more than likely destroy their livesRead MoreEating Disorders : An Eating Disorder1906 Words   |  8 Pagesobtain their body goal, thus causing an eating disorder. An eating disorder is a psychological condition that is characterized by abnormal or disturbed eating habits. There are three types of eating disorders; which are Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating.These disorders affect all aspects of a person’s life, including their psychological, emotional, and physical health. There are many factors that contribute to individuals developing eating disorders including: genetics, family pressuresRead MoreEating Disorders : Ea ting Disorder1235 Words   |  5 PagesEating Disorders Eating disorders are a very serious psychological condition that affects your mind so that you are more focused on your food and weight than you are on everything else. The most known and most commonly diagnosed eating disorders are anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder; however, these are not the only eating disorders. Eating disorders cause psychical and psychological problems, which at their worst can even become life threating. Statistics show that more women are affected

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The American Foreign Policy Should Be Non-Interventionist...

The United States was once a non-interventionist nation that minded our own affairs. However, this nation is now always involved with other countries’ problems because America just cannot seem to mind its own business. The United States needs to stop getting involved in what is going on abroad frequently and start fixing problems at home because those are America’s top priority to discuss and handle. If the United States is going to consider getting involved in Foreign Affairs, the involvement should be valid and reasonable. The United States needs to significantly reduce its involvement in events abroad and mind its own business. The United States needs to stop minding other nation’s conflicts. The United States has been involved in†¦show more content†¦The involvement by military means will worsen the situation like it has in the Middle East and the relationship between the United States and Russia. â€Å"US Ambassador Samantha Power said the US rejec ted Russia’s military annexation of Crimea. She warned that the US and its allies, who imposed sanctions on Russia two days ago, are prepared to take additional steps if Russian aggression continues.† (â€Å"Russia and the US exchange threats†). Clearly threatening to start a war against a large superpower like Russia is not the best way to ensure the nation’s security and will only instigate more problems like war which is definitely something that should not happen. Another foreign conflict that the United States was involved in without a valid reason was the Abadan Crisis in Iran. It was a crisis when the Iranian government under the leadership of Mohammad Mossadegh nationalized the assets of the British Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) and expelled all western oil companies. The United States immediately stepped in and the CIA and the British MI6 orchestrated a coup to restore the pro-american Mohammad Reza Pahlavi back to power and have Britain and ot her new western oil corporations including ones from the United States to have their business interests in Iran. According to an article by The Guardian, British foreign secretary Sir Anthony Eden regarded Mossadegh as a serious threat to its strategic and economic interests after he nationalised the British AIOC.Show MoreRelatedThe Trends Of Foreign Policy And National Security1653 Words   |  7 PagesAmerican foreign policy has gradually changed since the birth of our nation. On July 4, 1891, John Quincy Adams addressed the Senate and House of Representatives during a powerful Independence Day speech designed to prevent an alliance with the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire. Although sympathetic to their cause, he warned against involving America in other states’ affairs, stating,† America does not go abroad in search of monsters to destroy. She is the well-wisher to Freedom and independenceRead MoreAmerica s Position On Reciprocity And Bilateral Free Trade Agree ments1574 Words   |  7 PagesCommerce of the United States in Foreign Countries† in order to consolidate America’s position on reciprocity and bilateral free trade agreements. In the document he emphasized that â€Å"free commerce and navigation are not to be given in exchange for restrictions and vexations; nor are they likely to produce a relaxation of them†. Above all, Jefferson was concerned with â€Å"fair and equal access† to all foreign markets and realized that other European mercantilist policies were not favorable towards a completelyRead More[1] In Her Widely Known Call For American Action In The1275 Words   |  6 Pages [1] In her widely known call for American action in the face of genocide, A Problem From Hell, former journalist Samantha Powers wrote â€Å"’all progress depends on the unreasonable man.’ After a century of doing so little to prevent, suppress, and punish genocide, Americans must join and thereby legitimate the ranks of the unreasonable.† Her demand was that American society at large join the few in its ranks who have vehemently fought for U.S. action in the face of genocide, long considered the â€Å"unreasonable†Read MoreAmerican Government During The Twentieth Century1626 Words   |  7 Pagesof the lives of individuals than ever before. In 1789, American government was granted the privilege to intervene in a limited amount of citizens’ affairs. Today, American Government has grown to be involved in family life, social life, and even life of foreign nations. This type of involvement is not traditional and not what America’s founding fathers intended. Life in America was not always so intertwined with government. In fact, American government did not begin to expand exponentially untilRead MoreWoodrow Wilson And Theodore Roosevelt Essay1463 Words   |  6 Pageshaving a prosperous economy built on free market system. The facets of an American identity mo stly revolved around corporate power and stability. The corporations grew at a national scale effortlessly, and within years, international; the United States was following similar footsteps of the British East India Company as an emulation to the western hemisphere. Contracted railroads, lands, and farms were the crux of American imperialism in the Americas. The strengthening grip of the corporations onRead MoreWhat Is The Importance Of Chinese Investment In Africa As A Global Trade?1346 Words   |  6 PagesAfricans have access to electricity, 54% to paved roads, 63% to piped water, 93% to cell phone service and only 30% to proper sewage. Considering that poor road, rail and port infrastructure add around 30-40% to goods traded among African countries, it should be no surprise that African economies have struggled to remain competitive in global markets (ICA). Thus, Chinese investment in infrastructure has been a cornerstone of the â€Å"win-win† approach that has benefitt ed both African and Chinese investorsRead MoreBiographical Sketch Of William Kristol Essay753 Words   |  4 Pagesorganizations that promote the neo-conservative agenda in foreign policy. In short, Mr. Kristol’s views on contemporary issues include regime change in Syria and Iran, rejection of the Iranian nuclear deal, staunch support for the defense of Israel, and the annihilation of ISIL. Major Ideas. Broadly defined, neo-conservativism advocates the assertive promotion of democracy and US national interests through military supremacy and interventionist foreign policy. It places the United States as the overseer ofRead MoreTheu.s. The Great Depression1548 Words   |  7 PagesIsolationism was the answer to fix this crisis. The favoring of isolationism in different parts of the country and people influenced the U.S foreign policies in such a way that the United States Government became an isolationist. They believed that with the various economic hardships in the country, their focus should be on domestic issues, instead of dealing with foreign affairs. The Great Depression caused diverse types of citizens, groups, and even government officials to voice their opinion for isolationismRead MoreEssay about American Foreign Policy in Syria1237 Words   |  5 PagesThere is an increasingly growing global controversy about whether the United States should intervene in the Syrian confl ict, and whether this intervention should be military or strategic. The U.S. has recently avoided interfering militarily in Syria or providing the rebels with direct support, but admitted the presence of the Syrian opposition. However, the U.S. has been criticized for its non-intervention policy, especially with the rise in the level of violence and the spread of conflict to otherRead MorePost American World Synopsis715 Words   |  3 PagesThe Post-American World We have entered a new age of economic growth. Fareed Zakaria explains in his bestseller, â€Å"The Post-American World†, that we are currently experiencing the third power shift in 500 years. In â€Å"The Post-American World†, Zakaria shows us where America stands when compared to rapidly growing countries. America can no longer hold its position of acting director on the world stage with countries rapidly catching up. It is now America’s duty to provide suggestion pertaining to problems

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Copyright Law Case Study Free Essays

string(29) " his music to sell products\." Music Business Music Technology Production Year 3 K00121700 Case Study Ronan Mitchell Abstract Copyright Law is an important entity within the music industry. It protects the owner of authorship from infringement. Infringement arises when the copyright owner’s work is used without their consent. We will write a custom essay sample on Copyright Law Case Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although sounds cannot be copyrighted, some cases have shown that the argument of copyrighting one’s voice can sometimes hold weight in a court of law. Singer Tom Waits sued snack manufacturer Frito Lay for hiring a singer to impersonate him in an advert. Mr. Waits felt that his artistic copyright had been infringed upon. Frito Lay’s defense argued that a voice cannot be protected by copyright law as it is a sound and not a musical piece of work. They referred to a similar case involving Bette Midler in which she sued Ford motors for using an impersonator in a commercial to imitate her voice. Although Midler lost the case, it created ambiguity over the issue of an artist’s right their voice, if they believe it to be distinctive. Tom Waits, unlike Bette Midler, won the lawsuit and earned him $2. 6 million. This case served to highlight the complexities involved with advertising agencies using, not only an artist’s work, but also their identity. Introduction The music industry is notoriously rife with legal disputes. Many of these are due to infringement of copyright. A grey area arises, however, when it comes to advertising. In a lot of cases, an artist will gladly accept royalties and/or remuneration to have their song featured in an advertisement. But in certain instances, artists will have strong opinions about having their music feature in an advertisement. When this happens, advertising companies who use this artist’s work can find themselves in the middle of an ugly legal dispute. This case study endeavors to discuss some of the legal complexities involved when advertising companies use an artist’s musical work. Several cases exist in the United States where advertising agencies ran into legal disputes over music featured in an ad, even when not infringing upon standard copyright laws. I have chosen two cases to cross examine to highlight certain legal problems that certain advertising companies face. The first case examined for this study is Tom Waits Vs Frito-Lay, Inc. In this case Tom Waits sued the Frito-Lay snack manufacturer and their advertising agency for voice misappropriation and false endorsement. Despite not infringing on any copyright laws, Waits won the case and was awarded $2. 6 million in compensatory damages, punitive damages and attorney’s fees. (Roesler, 1992). The second case examined in this study will look at is Bette Midler Vs Ford Motor Co. This case, which preceded Waits lawsuit, is almost identical in that Ford’s advertising agency, Young Rubicam, Inc. hired an unknown singer to impersonate Midler on a version of her track â€Å"Do You Want To Dance†. (Lurie, 1994) Midler took legal action and sued Ford for $10 million, also citing voice misappropriation. Unlike Tom Waits case, US District Judge A. Wallace Tashima ruled against Midler, stating that the evidence presented wasn’t sufficient and that a voice is not a copyrightabl e entity (Los Angeles Times, 1989) Study To better understand the legalities that face companies in these instances, we must first develop a better understanding of what copyright law entails. In short, Copyright is a property right. It is a set of laws and regulations set in place to protect to form of expression of ideas. The ideas themselves cannot be protected by such laws. The idea must take on some tangible form, such as a recorded piece of music, a produced film, piece of art, etc. The owners of these rights are protected by copyright law from anyone who would copy their work and reproduce it for their own monetary gain without the owner’s express permission. It is the owner of the copyright who may authorize the use of their work by another party, but only they only reserve the right to do this at their discretion. Neff, 2012) Naturally, as there are many different mediums for expressing ideas, copyright law is divided into many different subsections. This is to cover all vessels for creative expression. On a simple scale, copyright subsists in four sections; Music, Film and Broadcast, Literary Publication and Original Databases. The music subset consists of Musical, Literary, Dramatic or Artistic Works. The musical copyright covers works of music that do not contain words. How notes are arranged to form melodies, song structures and chord progressions are protected by this copyright. Certain musical elements are not protected by this. If a guitarist has particularly unique guitar tone, he cannot have this protect by a copyright. A specific tone is not a tangible musical work and therefore cannot be protected. However, if the same guitarist recorded an original piece of music with that guitar tone, this recording is now a tangible body of work and can be protected by musical copyright. It is the music itself that is protected. Not the sound. (Neff, 2012) This is a particularly interesting element of Tom Waits lawsuit against Frito-Lay. The defendants argued that the â€Å"voice misappropriation† case was invalid as one cannot own the rights to certain style of singing. (UMKC School of Law, n. d. ) Tom Waits is an American singer, songwriter, composer and actor. Almost as much for his music, he is renowned for his unique gravelly, guttural singing voice. His voice has been described as sounding like â€Å"like it was soaked in a vat of bourbon, left hanging in the smokehouse for a few months, and then taken outside and run over with a car. † (Graff, G Durchholz, D 1998). Tracy-Locke, Frito Lay’s advertising agent, approached Tom Waits about using is his song â€Å"Step Right Up† in an advert for RioSalsa Doritos. They put together a version of the song which featured new lyrics relevant to the product and played this for Waits. Tom Waits refused outright as he is vehemently opposed using his music to sell products. You read "Copyright Law Case Study" in category "Free Case study samples" It was interesting that they chose that particular song, as the lyrics are a satirical indictment of advertising. The song features advertising slogans used sarcastically to describe a product that supposedly does everything from â€Å"shine your car† to â€Å"make you six foot five, blonde and beautiful†. Jacobs, 2000) When he refused, the Tracy-Locke company then hired a singer to impersonate Tom Waits style of sing over a song that bared a lot of similarities the Waits â€Å"Step Right Up†. Tom Waits took legal action and sued fo r voice misappropriation and false endorsement. (Roesler, 1992) As the lyrics for the song were altered to suit the ad, Waits literary copyright was unaffected. The literary copyright pertains to a work of words which are written, spoken or sung. This work does not specifically need to be written down for the copyright to apply. A recording of such work holds he same right as literary work that is written or printed. Written musical notation also falls under this subsection regardless if it is written down, printed or recorded. (Neff, 2012) As for the musical rights to the song, it transpired that Tom Waits, despite having written the piece, did not have authorship of the copyright for â€Å"Step Right Up†. In normal circumstances, authorship of the copyright to a sound recording is held by the produce of said recording. In this case, the authorship fell to Fifth Floor Music run by Herb, Martin and Evan Cohen. Frito Lay had in fact obtained the synchronisation license from Fifth Floor Music. This licence enabled them to reproduce a new song extremely similar, albeit not identical, to â€Å"Step Right Up† to which the new jingle lyrics were added. Tom Waits was unaware of this so was unable to step in and terminate the dealings. Although, having no authorship of the copyright, it is questionable as to whether or not this would have had any sway in the proceedings at all. (Jacobs, 2000) Similarly, in Bette Midler’s case, like Waits, Midler was not the owner of the copyright. She did not write the song nor did she pen the lyrics. Ford Co. bought the rights the song â€Å"Do You Want To Dance† from the publishing company that had ownership over the copyright. This meant that Ford had no obligation to contact Bette Midler with regards to their intentions to use the song for their commercial. (Lurie, 1994) Since Midler had no ownership rights, the defense argued that her â€Å"voice misappropriation† was preempted by the copyright act. However, this was rejected as they found that copyright cannot be preempted if the subject matter â€Å"does not come within the subject matter of copyright†¦.. ncluding works or authorship not fixed in any tangible medium of expression. † (UMKC School of Law, n. d. ) It was decided that, since it was not possible to copyright a particular sound (like that of the guitar tone), the voice was not suitable copyright subject matter. Thus, copyright preemption did not apply. (UMKC School of Law, n. d. ) Al though the court ruled in favor of the defendant, Midler’s case of â€Å"voice misappropriation† raised the question of a celebrity’s right to control over their identity, with respect to commercial use. This ambiguity was vital to the outcome of Waits lawsuit only three years later. Lurie, 1994) The copyright preemption issue in Midler’s case was referred to in Waits Vs Frito Lay. The defense requested that, since Tom Waits was not the lawful owner of the music copyright, the preemption of copyright law did not apply in this instance as it had with Midler. Waits case was not for infringement of a tangible copyrightable piece of work, but for infringement of voice. Again, voices are merely sounds; and sounds are not protected by copyright law. (UMKC School of Law, n. d. ) Despite this, the defense argued that, even though they had copied Waits musical style, they did not imitate his voice. This was found to be untrue, however. It transpired that Tracy-Locke’s executive producer was quite concerned with the legal implications of their singer’s striking similarity to Waits’ voice. He requested that they record another version of the jingle asking the singer to sing less like Waits. Unhappy with the result, Frito Lay insisted they use first version. (UMKC School of Law, n. d. ) On the day that the commercial was due to air, Tracy Locke’s managing vice president spoke with their attorney regarding what legal issues they might encounter. He was advised that there was a strong possibility of legal ramification due to recent case law that recognized a distinctive voice as protectable. However, as style was not protectable, their attorney informed them that the case might hold no merit. (UMKC School of Law, n. d. ) Despite the warning, Frito Lay chose the version that imitated Tom Waits’ distinctive voice. It was proposed that the jury be given a proposed instruction on the distinction between voice and style which read, â€Å"In contemporary music, there are a great many styles or â€Å"sounds,†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Style is not subject to ownership. No singer can appropriate for himself any style and exclude others from performing in the same style. Any singer is free to sing in the same style. † (UMKC School of Law, n. d. ) This instruction was rejected by the district court. Given that there were a lot of similarities between this case and Midler’s â€Å"voice-misappropriation† case, the jury was asked to decide whether or not they found Waits’ style to be distinctive. The defense argued that the omitted instruction was an error in judgment as this then left the jury unclear as to what the distinction was between voice and style. (UMKC School of Law, n. d. Waits argued that although no copyright infringement had occurred, he felt his artistic integrity had been compromised. It was put forth that anyone had heard the advertisement would automatically assume that it was Waits singing. Waits has strongly spoken out about artists taking money to allow their music to be used to sell product. He felt that, as the Doritos advertisement jingle sounded identical to his voice and musical style, that his fans would assume he participated in the advertisement and had willing endorsed the product. This, he asserted, was damaging to his reputation and his career as an artist. UMKC School of Law, n. d. ) The jury then listened to several of Tom Waits songs to determine both his musical and vocal style. The court then played them the Doritos advertisement in question for comparison. To convince them further, Waits attorneys had them hear testimonies from people who had in fact thought that it was Waits in the advertisement. (Roesler, 1992) This argument was persuasive enough to sway the jury. They were convinced when they heard to advertisement and the testimonies that, despite the fact that no copyrightable material had been infringed upon, Waits’ artistic integrity had been compromised. The jury found that the defendants had â€Å"acted with oppression, fraud or malice† (Roesler, 1992, p. 15). Tom Waits was awarded 2. 6 million dollars in compensatory damages and attorney’s fees. Conclusion In conclusion, we can see from the above cases that copyright is a bastion for musical artists. They help to protect an artist’s right to their work and a right to their form of expression from being exploited by large companies and advertising agencies who can sometimes try to profit from their work. Although, as they are vital to protecting an artist’s creative work, we can also seen from the cases studied that they can protect much more than that. Technically, in the eyes of the law, only a tangible body of work can by protected by these rights. However, as this study has shown, in certain rare cases, these rights can be manipulated to encompass, not only an artist’s work, but their identity, persona and artistic integrity when exploited. As made evident by the unusual Tom Waits lawsuit, it seems that advertising companies in particular must wade carefully when wishing to use unlicensed music for commercials. As their sole intention is for making money, they can be looked at very callously by court jury. Thus, certain unscrupulous can land in a lot of trouble despite not infringing on a copyrighted piece of work. Although situations such as this are quite unusual, they highlight the importance of copyright law within the music industry. References Graff, G Durchholz, D 1998, Musichound Rock: The Essential Album Guide. Visible Ink, Detroit * Jacobs, J. A 2000, â€Å"Copyright: Tom waits Vs Frito Lay†, viewed 04 January 2013, www. tomwaitsfan. com/tom%20waits%20library/www. tomwaitslibrary. com/copyright-fritolay. html * Los Angeles Times (1989), Bette Midler Loses Ford Sound-Alike Lawsuit : Celebrity: $10-million suit over TV car commercial is dismissed but action against the ad agency is allowed to stand, vie wed 06 January 2013, http://articles. atimes. com/1989-10-27/business/fi-901_1_bette-midler * Lurie, K. (1994) Waits v. Frito-Lay: The Song Remains the Same.. Cardozo Arts Ent. LJ, 13, 187. , Available at: http://heinonline. org/HOL/LandingPage? collection=journalshandle=hein. journals/caelj13div=26id=page= [Accessed: 6th January 2013]. * Neff, F. 2012, â€Å"Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000; Introduction to Copyright Overview And Originality in Copyright†, * Neff, F. 012, â€Å"Authorship and Ownership of Copyright; Copyright and Related Acts 2000 Sections 21 to 23†, * Roesler, M. (1992) Waits v. Frito Lay,. 978 F. 2d 1093 (9th Cir. 1992), Available at: http://www. markroesler. com/pdf/caselaw/Waits%20v. %20Frito-Lay%20Inc. %20_1992_. pdf [Accessed: 6th January 2013] * University of Missouri Kanas City School of Law (1992) Waits v. Frito Lay, Inc. United States Court Of Appeals For The Ninth Circuit, Available at: http://law2. umkc. edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/ communications/waits. html [Accessed: 4th January 2013]. How to cite Copyright Law Case Study, Free Case study samples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

AfroAmer Essay Example For Students

AfroAmer Essay During my early years of school, I remember being taught white accomplishments and wondering if blacks and other people of color had made any significant contributions to todays world. I noticed that television consist of all white people. Throughout my research paper I hope to cover certain aspects of African American heritage. Aspects such as blacks making up the largest minority group in the United States, although Mexican-Americans are rapidly changing that. The contributions blacks have provided to our country are immeasurable. Unfortunately though rather than recognizing these contributions, white America would rather focus on oppressing and degrading these people. As a consequence American society instinctively associated white with light and all good things; while black is associated with darkness or evil. The journey to freedom for African Americans all started in 1619 when the first twenty African slaves were brought to Jamestown to serve a land not familiar with, in order to please wealthy white settlers. For the next 150 years, Africans were uprooted from their homeland and shipped across the Atlantic ocean to the United States to be sold as if they were property in America. The majority of these slaves were imported between 1741 and 1810. By 1790 blacks made up over 19% of the U.S. population. Although slaves had different cultural backgrounds, they all shared a common way of looking at the world. The degradation and brutality of slavery caused these different tribal groups to seek out common cultural ground in order to survive the horrible experience of slavery. The common ground that slaves endured revolved around kinship and the idea of stoicism. The idea of stoicism may be a result of harsh physical conditions in Africa. Kinship was by far the most important element in the African culture. Individuality was not stressed but rather the importance of the extended family. I believe that African Americans suffering through the hardships of slavery strengthened the idea of kinship even further. The unity of the African culture became strong due to a series of trials and tribulations. The majority of the slaves were employed in agricultural areas in the South. By the mid-19th century, a large number of slaves worked in urban areas as well, and about 5% worked in more industrial occupations. The hours of the slave workers were long. The average life expectancy of African slaves was at least 12% lower than whit Americans in 1850 and the infant mortality rate was 25% higher for slaves. Oftentimes slave marriages and families dissolved due to separation. This concept is horrible when you take under consideration that family was the entire basis of African culture. Although frequent separation occurred slaves were very careful to pass on the surnames of their black family of origin to their children. Kinship again is an importance in African society. Although the first steps towards in improvements for African-American culture began in the North, social and economic conditions didnt improve much at all. The racial attitudes of whites were still obvious among the white society. Laws banning interracial marriage and voting among free blacks accompanied every northern state emancipation. These laws were supposedly designed to prevent mass migration of southern blacks to the North. Race relations did, however, improve in the North after the CivilWar. Even though this was the case Northern blacks had no political nor economic base to begin their struggle for equality and self-actualization. The one aspect of African-Americans lives that were in their hands was religion. This was utilized to unit the blacks in America during the ant-baalim period. There was a great black exodus from white churches that went on for thirty years. Blacks to create unity throughout the African-American culture created churches. The style of sermon within t hese churches reflected the call-response patternsof traditional African-American music. These churches were responses of alienation segregation from white churches. It was leaders of these churches who provided the majority of leadership in the South after the Civil War. The organization of campaigns and boycotts against segregated public schools and public facilities began. The laws passed were very easy to evade. In 1896, Plessy vs. Ferguson fully legalized segregation using the phrase separate but equal for justification. However separate was never equal in this case. Thus American apartheid continued. Math Perceptions of Taiwanese and American childrenSix months after the Brown decision, on December1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, exhausted after along workday, refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man. Her arrest sparked the year long Montgomery buses boycott. The next decade involved an increased violent protest. This era became known as the Civil Rights Movement. The early 1960s involve sit-in demonstrations, freedom rides, and mass street demonstrations. White society as well as traditional black leaders realized it was a time for change. The leaders of the movement broke away from the traditional leadership tactics. The masses of people involved showed that changes needed to come that effected Black America as a whole. In 1957, less than 40 years ago, under the leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the Southern Christian Leadership Conference was organized. Dr. King encouraged non-violent direct action. However, these non-violent protests often ended in violence behind the hands of white police officers. Anything from tear gas or water hoses were used on African-Americans. These people who were not only black but also whites were treated like animals. Believe it or not this occurred 40 years ago. In 1947 President Eisenhower reluctantly federalized the National Guard to enforce desegregation in the schools. White Southerners did everything in their power to prevent desegregation. By 1964 a decade after the Brown decision, less than 2% of southern blacks attended integrated schools, which was only 30 years ago. Throughout The Civil Rights Movement in the 60s, individuals repeatedly disobeyed laws that violated the civil rights of blacks. Civil disobedience peaked during the summer of 1963. Protesters filled southern jails. A nonviolent march to our nations capitol involved approximately 200,000 whites and blacks protesting the violation of civil rights of blacks. The next two summers President Johnson legalized two more civil ri ghts bills. These bills opened up public facilities and voting booths to blacks for the first time since the 1890s. Along with these achievements came increased violence. On June 12, 1963 the leader of the NAACP, Midgar Evers, was assassinated outside his home. Riots in Harlem in 1964, Watts in 1965, Cleveland in 1967, and Detroit in 1968 were all reactions to frustrations of oppressed black people. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.s assassination on April 4, 1968 caused an eruption of violence in a number of cities. The majority of all the riots took place in northern cities. In the South the movement was easier accepted because the gain of southern blacks overshadowed the deaths. These were sacrifices that blacks unwillfully gave. The conditions in the North werent as bad so they viewed the martyrs as needless deaths for African-Americans, which further heightened frustration. Although the mid-1960s brought about extreme violence and tragedy, it also brought about steep progress as a who le. Between 1964 and 1968 there was an 85% increase in black college enrollment. In 1974 a survey showed that the majority of black children (50% in the South, 66% in the North), still attend predominantly black schools. This segregation in school also caused residential segregation. There has definitely been progress being made but there was, and still is a very long way to go before equality can be achieved. The ignorance is still on the back burner; we need to completely get rid of it. White society has a difficulty accepting African-American culture. Its difficult for many whites to see the beauty of African-American culture because they are too busy trying to fabricate justifications for inferiority of blacks. Mutual respect is without a doubt essential before equality can be achieved. The white ideas that have so long haunted Black America hopefully will completely disappear in the near future. But after seeing movies like the one you showed on the Ku Klux Klan it is going to be hard to completely throw prejudice away. There are far too many ignorant people in todays society, I just pray that our next generations will understand equality. Bibliography:Lefton, Lester A. (1994). Sociology. Needham Heights, MAAllyn and Bacon. 96-150

Monday, March 23, 2020

Fiber Optics Essays - Optical Fiber, Fiber Optics,

Fiber Optics Fiber optics is a branch of optics concerning the transmission of light by means of optical fibers, which are thin strands of glass or other optically transparent materials. Optical fibers can be used to guide light--which is electromagnetic radiation in a certain frequency range--in much the same way that metal wave guides or coaxial cables can be used to guide lower-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Optical Fiber An optical fiber is usually circular in cross section and consists of a core and cladding. An optical fiber for communication applications is typically between about 0.1 and 0.2mm (0.004 and 0.008 in) in diameter. In order that the light waves be guided by the fiber, the core must have a higher index of refraction than the cladding. One such fiber is called a step-index fiber because the index changes abruptly at the interface between the core and the cladding. An important variation of this structure is the graded-index fiber, so called because the index of refraction decreases smoothly outward from the center with no abrupt step. Transmission of Light In the step-index fiber, the light wave is guided by a process called total internal reflection. Only rays that have an angle of incidence at the core-cladding interface greater than the critical angle will be reflected back into the core and thus guided by the fiber. Some rays follow a longer path through the fiber than do others. Thus a pulse of energy entering the fiber undergoes dispersion. This effect limits the bandwidth of the fiber and reduces the amount of information it can transmit. This undesirable feature can be partly overcome by the use of graded-index fibers of proper design. Applications Fiber optics is used in several areas of telecommunications. Advantages of optical fibers include their wide bandwidth, low attenuation, lightness, small cross section, and non-conductivity of electricity. In telephone systems they can provide communication channels to customers and wideband facilities for interconnecting switching offices. Because they are non-conducting, they can be used to provide telecommunications services to locations in electrically hostile environments, such as electric power stations. Because they are completely immune to induced currents from external electromagnetic fields, optical fibers are also useful in environments where electrical noise exists, such as hospitals and factories. Finally, their lightness makes them attractive for use in aircraft and spacecraft as well as in portable communications systems required for tactical military applications. All these properties make them desirable for interconnecting computers and other sophisticated electronic equipment. In communication-system applications, individual fibers usually are used to guide light waves. Other applications employ bundles of fibers. One such application is the transmission of light for illumination. Fibers used for this purpose need not have the cladding or the index gradient of single-fiber light guides because the index step at the glass-air interface serves to guide the light. Another application of fiber bundles is the transmission of images. For this application the fibers must be arranged in the bundle in a coherent fashion. By arranging the locations of the fibers at one end (the output) of the bundle in certain ways with respect to their location at the other end (the input), such functions as magnification, inversion, rotation, distortion, and scrambling of the image can be performed. Bundles of this type can be used for viewing otherwise inaccessible areas, an example being the physician's endoscope. In order to achieve high resolution, fibers with diameters as small as 0.02 mm (0.0008 in) are used in these applications. Fiber bundles are also used in photography, spectroscopy, and image processing.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Education System in Nigeria and Kenya Compared Essays

Education System in Nigeria and Kenya Compared Essays Education System in Nigeria and Kenya Compared Essay Education System in Nigeria and Kenya Compared Essay Essay Topic: Education TASK Write a well documented paper on the education system with specific reference to: brief background, aims/goals of education,thestructureoftheeducation system, administration, financing,teachingprofession,challengesand lessons Kenya would learn or borrow. Choose one of these countries Nigeria, Australia, Canada, or China. Background of Nigeria Education Nigeria education has evolved through a number of phases. The education system in Nigeria has been formed by a number of influences, the colonial influence, the influence of the military rule in Nigeria and then the impact of independence and a new constitution. The progress of education in the southern states of Nigeria reveals the involvement of the Christian missionaries towards the education system in Nigeria during the colonial period. Nigeria education was slowly but soundly developing during the colonial time until the conclusion of World War II. The Christian missionaries introduced the western education system in Nigeria in the mid nineteenth century. Three fundamentally distinct education systems existed in Nigeria in 1990. They were, the indigenous system, the Quranic schools, and formal European-style educational institutions. Higher Education in Nigeria originated with the colonial government launching the Yaba higher college. Education in Nigeria became the responsibility of the state and local councils according to the 1979 constitution. First six years of primary education was made mandatory, which was a significant factor in the development of education in Nigeria. There has been a noticeable upgrading of educational facilities in Nigeria in the latest years. The apparent rate for adult illiteracy in the year 2000 is 35.9%. The Structure of Nigeria Education System The local and state governments manage primary and secondary education in Nigeria. Higher education is the responsibility of both the federal and the state governments. Education is free but not compulsory at present in Nigeria. The formal education system includes six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four years of university education consequently directing towards a bachelors level degree in the majority of the subjects. The annual term of school in Nigeria stretch through ten months, and is sectioned into three ten to twelve weeks periods each at the pre-primary, primary, junior and senior secondary stages. Nigeria Education includes a significant stage of language education. Primary education in Nigeria starts in the native language but brings in English in the third year. Administration and Organization of Education System The current administrative system is divided into the Federal Capital Territory and 36 states. The management of education in Nigeria is based on this federal system, so that while basic educational policy regarding structure, curriculum and school year is centrally determined, some powers over educational delivery are devolved to state and local government. In effect, education is administered by three branches of government: primary education is under the control of local governments, secondary schools fall under the jurisdiction of the state government and higher education is administered by both the federal and state government. Administrative Bodies and Agencies * The Federal Ministry of Education, through the National Council of Education (NCE), coordinates education policies and procedures through the federation. * The Joint Consultative Committee (JCC) is an independent body of professional educators acting in an advisory capacity to both the federal and state ministries of education, universities, institutes of education and other education agencies. * The National Universities Commission (NUC) operates under the Federal Ministry of Education and is mandated to approve programmes, to monitor universities and to accredit programmes. The NUC provides a full listing of recognised federal, state and private universities in Nigeria. * The National Examinations Council?   (NECO) is responsible for conducting the Junior and Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE), as is the West African Examination Council (WAEC). * The National Business and Technical Examinations Board (NABTEB) conducts the National Technical Certificate (NTC)/National Business Certificate (NBC) examinations, as well as the advanced level versions of these exams in a number of trades/discipline such as engineering and construction. * The National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) has responsibility for the establishment of minimum standards in polytechnics, technical colleges and other technical institutions in the Federation. In addition to providing standardised minimum guide curricula for technical and vocational education and training. The NBTE supervises and regulates, through an accreditation process, the programmes offered by technical institutions at secondary and post-secondary levels. It is also involved with the funding of polytechnics owned by the Government of the Federation of Nigeria. The NBTE provides a full listing of approved polytechnics and technical colleges in Nigeria. * The National Commission for Colleges and Education co-ordinates all aspects of non-degree teacher education in Nigeria. * The Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) conducts the Matriculation Examination for entry into all universities, polytechnics and colleges of education in Nigeria. * The National Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) was established in 1972 to encourage, promote and coordinate educational research programmes in Nigeria. This agency provides significant data on educational problems within Nigeria and its work underpins the reform agenda nationally. The Federal Ministry of Education owns and runs universities, polytechnics, technical colleges, colleges of education and secondary schools. The remaining tertiary institutions are owned and funded by state governments, while other secondary schools are owned and funded by state governments, communities and private organizations.The administration and management of state government-owned secondary schools falls under the remit of state Ministries of Education. The administration of public primary schools falls under the local education authorities. Aims/Goals of Education in Nigeria The purpose of education refers to the aims, goals and objectives of education. Abimbola (1993), while clarifying curriculum aims, goals and objectives, cited Zais (1976) who proposed the use of purposes as targets because he, (Zais) is of the opinion that aims, goals and objectives are purposes at differing target distances and levels of specifity. Aims are the expression of purpose at the highest level such as the national level which can only be achieved in a distant future after the child has passed out of school. Aims according to Broudy (1971), are statements that describe expected life outcomes based on some value schemes either consciously or unconsciously borrowed from philosophy (p. 306). Aims are not related directly to school or classroom outcomes. Goals and Objectives are educational purposes directly related to school and classroom outcomes respectively. Goals are expression of purposes specified for achievement at each level of education. When the purpose of education for a country is being discussed, the term aim of education may be used. Purpose of Education in Nigeria The purpose of education in Nigeria includes unparalleled development of science and its application to industry and technology for better living. The National Policy on Education spells out the purpose of Education in Nigeria as an Instrument par excellence for effecting national development; to use education as a tool to achieve its national objectives; to make such education relevant to the needs of the individual and set its goal in terms of the kind of society desired in relation to the environment and realities of the modern world and rapid social changes (p. iv).In section 1, (p. 7) of the National Policy on Education,the observation is made that since the national policy on education is geared toward achieving that part of its national objectives that can be achieved using education as a tool, no policy on education ban be formulated without first identifying the whole philosophy and objectives of the nation. Reference is therefore made to the five main national objectives of Nigeria already stated in the National Development plan and endorsed as the necessary foundation for the National Policy on Education. These are the building of: a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a united, strong and self-reliant nation;a great and dynamic economy and a land of bright and full opportunities for citizens The implication of this is that the Nigeria Philosophy of Education according to Adeyinka (1992) is based on: The integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizen; and Equal education opportunities at all levels, both within and outside the formal school system. For the philosophy to be in harmony with Nigerias national objective, it has to be geared towards the values, aims and objectives stated at the National curriculum conference of 1969 and specifically stated in the National Policy on Education as the General Objectives of Education in Nigeria which are as follows: (a) The inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and of society. This is an objective which can concern mainly the affective domain; (b) The inculcation of national consciousness and national unity. This is also an objective mainly in the affective domain; (c) The training of the mind in the understanding of the world around. This is aimed at developing the intellectual aspect of human beings. (d) The acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live and contribute to the development of his society. This objective is aimed at developing the intellectual, affective and psychomotor domains of human nature simultaneously. This is why education should be seen as aiming to develop all aspects of human persons simultaneously. Aims of Education in Nigeria Nigeria has been classified over the years among the developing nations of the world. That is, among those nations that are not as technologically advanced as Europe, United States of America and the Russia. These Countries are known to be largely illiterate and poor. They lack medical facilities especially when compared with the technologically advanced countries. The aims of education in these countries will be how to eradicate these problems. The aim of education in developing countries has been summarized by Adeyinka and Kolawde (1995) as follows: 1. Learning to live according to the old traditions of the people (society). 2. Learning to live according to the traditions of other countries in order to imbibe their religion, their culture and their social life. 3.Learning to live modern life of technologically advanced countries. Nigeria, Ghana, Uganda, Kenya and Lesotho, all in Africa, have a common trend. All of them were colonies under European countries which became independent after serving their masters for a number of years. These countries and some others have been striving for a stable government, dynamic economy and education that can deliver the goods. This is the root of the aims of education in developing countries stated below: 1. To promote national unity and international understanding; 2. To remove social inequalities, poverty, high-way robbery, hunger, diseases, squalor; illiteracy, ignorance, superstition, pride and fear; 3. To provide individual happiness and pleasure, self- realization, public morality and aesthetic development; 4. To train for good citizenship, health improvement, vocational competence, industrial and commercial developments and adult literacy; 5. To produce adequate manpower for economic development so that there could be less dependence on expatriates; 6. To create a society with high moral standards; 7. To eradicate the problem of economic and technological dependence on the advanced countries of the world; and 8. To promote public enlightenment and civilized behavior. (Adeyinka, et al; 1995) Financing of Education in Nigeria Financing of basic education All three tiers of government†federal, state, and local†fund primary education. Federal and state governments: Capital expenditures (buildings, books, and furniture) come from the federal and state governmentsâ„ ¢ share of the Federation Account.The Federation Account holds all federally collected revenues. The funds are divided among the three tiers of government according to a formula determined by the NationalAssembly. Some of the funds in this account accrue from government-owned mineral resources, a set percentage (13%) of which is returned to the states, apportioned on the basis of the statesâ„ ¢ original contributions. Thereafter, 15% of VAT revenues are distributed to the federal government, 50% to state governments, and 35% to local governments. Of the funds remaining within the Federation Account, 54.7% goes to the federal government, 24.7% to state governments, and 20.6% to local governments.State governments also pay the recurrent costs for managing State Primary Education Boards (SPEBs), Local Government Education Authorities (LGEAs), and primary schools. Local governments: The local governmentsâ„ ¢ 20.6% share of the Federation Account results in two types of local funding for education. First, at the state level, a percentage of the local share (a first charge) is set aside for primary school teachersâ„ ¢ salaries and allowances. Local governments may then use a part of what remains for direct assistance to primary schools. They also contribute own-source revenues to primary education. Financing Higher Education. Higher education relates to all forms of post-secondary education such as the Universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education, Monotechnics and Professional schools (Abdu 2003). Oghenekohwo (2004) classified the funding of higher education into two regimes namely: Pre-deregulation regime Deregulation regime In the pre-deregulation regime, higher education funding in Nigeria was done by government or public funding alone. High priority was accorded to funding higher education, thereby creating a wrong impression amongst Nigerians that funding of higher education is the exclusive preserve of governments. On the other hand in the deregulation regime, which is mostly a post Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) inevitability, things began to change. The benefits of the acquisition of any higher education programme now went largely to the individual as a private good for which beneficiaries and their families should pay.In the submission of Okebukola (2003), he noted that an additional concomitant of the private good is that, grants have been changed to loans, pacing major burdens on many university graduates. The financing of education should be the function of all the major stakeholders. This is because government alone cannot fund higher education. There are many stakeholders involved in the success of any educational system. The major stakeholders include the governments, educational institutions, parents/guardians and the private sector that employs the output of these institutions. Others include the students and the society in general. In private institutions, the incidence lies mostly on the individual while for the public sector ownership it lays on the public sector. The benefits of higher education should be identified. Some studies argued that education service should be above market forces and therefore should be provided free meaning that government should bear the cost of education so that the poor in the society can also get education. Other studies believed that not all levels of education ensures equity but rather there is higher private returns in higher education and as such individuals should be made to bear the cost of their higher education (Psacharopolous, 1996), while funding by the government should be limited to the basic education alone. Teaching Profession in Nigeria. In the past, to teach in primary school a person needed a Teacher Certificate Grade II (TCGDII) from four years of secondary school at a Grade II Teacher-training college. These were phased out after 1998, when the Nigerian Certificate of Education (NCE) became the required diploma for all primary and junior secondary school teachers. In 1996, out of approximately 420,000 primary school teachers in the country, about 80 percent had either the NCE or TCGDII (equally divided between the two). The government created the National Teachers Institute (NTI) in 1978 to conduct programs that would upgrade teacher qualifications to the NCE level, with most of this training carried out by distance learning. Between 1993 and 1996, the NTI graduated 34,486 in their NCE distance learning programs. In 2000, it trained 20,000 teachers. A Bachelor of Education program with NTI received approval by the government at the end of 2000. NTI also conducts workshops and conferences on curriculum development and in other areas of teacher training. To teach in senior secondary schools a person must have either a bachelors degree in education or a bachelors degree in a subject field combined with a postgraduate diploma in education. The faculty in senior secondary schools are among the best qualified in the country, almost all holding bachelors degree. A few teachers possess the NCE. The bachelors degree programs in education are offered at major teacher universities. Of the 63 colleges of education offering the three-year NCE program, about a third are owned by the federal government, and about half by state governments. The remaining are privately owned. All are under the supervision of the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), which sets and maintains standards and approves of courses and programs for all universities in Nigeria. To teach at Nigerian universities, teachers must have qualifications that are similar to professors at U.S. and European universities, usually a doctorate. At the university level, the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) represents university faculty, and the Senior Staff Association of Nigerian Universities (SSANU) bargains for the senior non-academic workers. The Academic Staff Unions of Polytechnics (ASUP) represents polytechnic faculty members. These unions are very active. The major teacher organization representing primary and secondary school teachers is the Nigeria Union of Teachers. Although it is very active, NUT has been unable to change the unsatisfactory conditions under which teachers work. Another major concern of teachers is salary. Not only is payment often incomplete, but the salaries are low. Salaries are set by the local, state, and federal governments, depending on which level controls the institution.. Challenges of Education in Nigeria Education is the bedrock of development. But unfortunately education in Nigeria is bisected with myriads of problems. These include: Poor Preparation and Malpractices: Experts in the education sector have been able to identify examination malpractices with poor preparation of students for an examination, and lack of self confidence. In view of the rising costs of education students and even their parents will not ordinarily want to be held back by any form of deficit or failure in any of the required subjects hence will go to any length to ensure success.In some cases, some teachers at the secondary school level are involved by way of encouraging students to contribute money in order to secure the needed assistance during such examinations because they, the teachers are left with no other alternative considering the fact that they are aware of the inadequate preparation of their students as well as the lack of facilities to get them properly prepared before examination. Exploitation and Educational Standard:A close assessment of activities in schools have revealed that, students are made to suffer undue amount of exploitation by school heads at both private and public schools in the name of enrolment fees and assurance of success in their examination and this they do in collaboration with the ministry officials who are suppose to inspect and monitor activities in schools to ensure standard compliance. Despite the fact that most of the schools lack basic learning facilities and a complete set of teachers. In like manner, students are being surcharged in a number of ways in tertiary institutions either in the name of dues that are not accounted for, force purchase of reading and other learning materials at exorbitant rate or on services of which staff are being paid for as assigned responsibility and official provision made by the respective institution. All these lead to lowering of the academic ability of students. Orientation and Educational Standard: In view of the prevalence of examination malpractices and other related irregularities in schools at all levels this day, the interest and habit of reading, procurement of books and other skills development materials has drastically dwindled among a number of students. This trend is also observed to have close relationship with rising sexual promiscuity among students. Poor Parenting /Guidance Parenting, entails caring, protection,guidance, provision of basic needs for a child up keep in order for him or her to be properly equipped to meet with the challenges of life, in accordance with the laws of the land. In desperation, many parents have decided to bring in additional innovation by way of not only involve in encouraging, but also finance activities in and around examination venues to effect malpractices in order to brighten the chances of their children or wards in qualifying examination to higher institutions and some even progress on this act through the tertiary level of education. Poverty and Fall in Standard: Acquisition of Education knowledge is supposed to help us fight against-poverty, ignorance and disease. The process of acquiring this well desired knowledge has gradually turned money spinning venture for many of those in dire need of the knowledge and skill. It is now a source of exploitation from the service seekers with little or no consideration for quality of service rendered and facilities on ground, and made an offer for the highest bidder. A trend which has cut across all levels of education, from nursery school to tertiary institutions. The concept, poverty, refers to a situation and process of serious deprivation or lack of resources and materials necessary for living within a minimum standard conducive for human dignity and well being (NEST, 1992: 16). Admission and being in school today is merely an ability to pay what is demanded in monetary terms by school operators and not on what could be offered academically. And this in essence widens t he scope of poverty prevalence as well as the gap between the rich and the poor which education is designed to bridge. Little wonder why graduates from many of the institutions exhibits ignorance towards societal realities and lack of creativity, due to the inadequacies associated with the learning and training process which is also observed to be partly because many of those that offer this service do so with greed. The Need for Research Development: This research sub-sector that is grossly neglected in Nigeria and play upon indiscriminately is the basis for the socio economic, political, scientific and technological advancement of our most admired developed nations of the world today. Therefore, conscious effort towards qualitative and durable educational system needs to be put in place for posterity in Nigeria. Funding /Constrains: The gross under funding of the educational sector in the country in general and the neglect of the maintenance of the physical facilities. Instructional and living conditions have deteriorated in many of these schools, classrooms, libraries and laboratories are nothing to write home about, all leading to decline in academic standards. Attention must be focused on these areas too if these educational institution are to get out of the woods and this is only possible through adequate funding. Since 1986 when the federal military government introduced the structural adjustment programme SAP, allocation of financial resource started to fall coupled with the consistent decline in the value of local currency till date. Which have also consistently affected the procurement of imported technical and scientific equipments, books, journals and other instructional needs in the educational system. Education system in Nigeria today, needs a total overhauling and restructuring, this reform is required to improve the performance of higher education in the country, the nation entered the 21st century insufficiently prepared to cope or compete in the global economy, where growth will be based even more heavily on technical and scientific knowledge (World Bank 1994). It is also a well known fact that the inadequacies always observed among many undergraduates and graduates alike is as a result of the inadequacies associated with the primary and the secondary education system in Nigeria. Though, the system is expensive to keep afloat, quality however in any form is partly a function of the total fund made available to the system and judiciously utilized for the purpose to which it is meant for. Funds are required and necessary to maintain both the human and material resources of the system in order to achieve desired goals. Also there is the need for an effective monitoring of the management of fund presently being allocated to the sector, as effort should be intensify to improve on what is currently being allocated to the system. Organizational Influence on Educational Standard Many viewers have observed that, most corporate organizations today in the country are fond of employing series of measures which are in effect bias and unproductive. They indulge in an unfair selective judgment on applicants seeking employment opportunity into their establishment, by way of using certificate grades as well as institution attended as prerequisites for interview attendance and recruitment. In some cases, they rather prefer candidates with first class and second class grade certificate and those that attended the first generation universities at the detriment of some others with lesser grade who might be better if given equal opportunity. This is their own way of encouraging irregularities and malpractices in the process of grade acquisition by prospective job seekers, therefore compromising standard and perpetual dependence on the services of foreign expatriates for both medium and high tech services. Lessons for Kenya. It has been said that the criteria for assessing any educational system are: the curriculum of study, the state of infrastructural facilities, the quality of students, the quality and quantity of staff, the competence of leadership, the level of funding and the direction and consistency of policy. In the area of curriculum and policy in Nigeria, the main problem is not with formulation as such but implementation. The implementation of laudable policies has often been hampered by incessant change of government, unstable academic calendars, poor and inadequate facilities, lack of motivation for staff, insecurity of life and property and the unwillingness of the products to make positive contribution to society. In this, Kenya can learn the importance of consistency in implementation of education policies despite changes in political leadership. Also the importance of proper motivation of teachers to ensure efficient and effective curriculum implementation. Failure to adhere to effective curriculum implementation may lead Kenya the Nigerian way i.e. the Nigerian system churns out a morally decadent and intellectually inept child who is a threat to both parents and society. The Nigerian youth are yet to imbibe the right type of values and attitudes. Rather, Nigerian schools and campuses have become breeding grounds for cultism, gangsterism, hooliganism, armed robbery, sexual promiscuity, examination malpractices, and a host of other vices. Instead of producing pragmatic and altruistic students, the Nigerian educational system churns out students who are egoistic, individualistic and escapists who are not interested in solving societys problems. In Nigeria, another area of serious decline is that of staffing. Time has gone when teachers were the best both in character and learning. What we have today is a pathetic story of pathetic teachers producing pathetic citizens. Kenya can learn the critical need of proper vetting of teachers to weed out rogue teachers before they teach wrong doctrine by bad example. A body to do the same needs to be put in place as the TSC seems overwhelmed by its broad mandate. Teacher qualification is another area Kenya can borrow from Nigeria. While in Kenya people with a teaching certificate teach in primary schools, Nigeria is moving to diploma holders at this level. Their tactic of systematic neglect has turned Nigerian educational institutions to an arena of the absurd. Apart from under-paying teachers (which had led to massive brain-drain), the money allocated to education falls kilometers short of the UNESCO recommended 25% of annual budget. The Kenyan primary free education concept can learn the importance of proper funding and the need to follow up to ensure the money ends up in the right use failure to which the poor state of infrastructure and consequent poor performance in public institutions will persist. With the coming into being of county governments in Kenya, the system of financing lower cadres of the education system can be adopted from Nigeria so that the central government concentrates on the higher levels of education financing. Bibliography Abimbola (1993) Guiding Philosophical perspectives U.M.O Ivowi, (Ed.) Curriculum development in Nigeria, (pp. 4-16) Ibadan: Sam Bookman Educational And Communication Services. Zais, R.S. (1976). Curriculum: Principles and foundations. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. Inc. Broudy, H.S. (1971). The philosophical foundations of educational objectives. In M. Levit (Ed.) Curriculum: Reading in philosophy of education. University of Illinois Press. Adeyinka, A.A. (1992). Book of reading in educational theory and practice in A. Akinyemi, (Ed.) llorin:Institute of Education, University of llorin, llorin, Nigeria Adeyinka, A.A. Kolawole D. (1995). History and philosophy of education. Unpublished Manuscript, Available for the Department of Education Foundations University of llorin, llorin, Nigeria. Abdu, P.S (2003) The Cost and Finance of Education in Nigeria Education Today Quarterly; June, Vol. 10 (1); 12 â€Å" 16 Oghenekohwo, J.E. (2004) Deregulation Policy and Its Implication of the Funding of the University Education in Nigeria in Journal of Research ion Education, Jan June Vol 3 (1) Pg 204-224. Okebukola, P (2003) Issues in Funding University Education in Nigeria. NUC Monograph Series, Abuja, MUC. Psacharopoulos, G. (1984) The Contribution of Education to Economic Growth International Comparisons in J. Kendrick (ed) International Productivity Comparisons and Cause of the Showdown. Cambridge Mass: Ballenger Aina, A.T. and A. T. Salau.1992. The challenge of sustainable Development in Nigeria. Nigerian Environment Study/Action Team (NEST). An NGO report prepared for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, June 1-12, p. 8, 16. World Bank (1994). Higher Education: The Lessons of Experience. Washington D.C: The World Bank. Online sources rti.org/pubs/Financing_Education_Nigeria.pdf accessed on 26th January 2011 mapsofworld.com/nigeria/education/ accessed on 26th January 2011

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

3 stories for research paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

3 stories for - Research Paper Example Johnson with her â€Å"White Trash Primer† which is a sad stereotypical portrayal of poor white people. Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899-1961) wrote a number of remarkable novels that had sharp and vivid portrayals of scenes and unforgettable characterizations of the main characters in his short stories and novels. A few of these novels stood out such as â€Å"The Sun Also Rises† and â€Å"For Whom the Bell Tolls† as classic examples of his unique sparse writing style accentuated with his trademark understatement. Among his other memorable works are â€Å"The Old Man and the Sea† and â€Å"A Farewell to Arms† that ensured his reputation and legacy as a foremost writer of the twentieth century. Many writers imitated his writing style of spare dialog, vivid characterizations, a preference for understatement, and wise use of simple prose that won for him the much-coveted Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954. Fiction was his favorite genre but his writings have a strong resemblance to reality because he had chosen to write mainly from his own experiences in life. If he wrote it, he had also done it before. Hemingway was born and raised in Oak Park, Illinois. He was barely out of high school when he applied for work in a newspaper. This job as a journalist honed and sharpened his writing style of brevity and mastery of details and facts about a story. He soon joined in the First World War as an ambulance driver and at various times during the war also reported the wartime events as a war correspondent. After the war, he became a foreign correspondent of various newspapers and acquired varied experiences while filing his news stories. He had been married four times, went on a safari to Africa where he met accidents twice, and later on suffered from various ailments as a result of those accidents and a lifestyle of drinking and smoking. He was depressed, paranoid, hypertensive, and committed suicide in